Example research essay topic: Victories In Foreign Policy But A Domestic Downfall – 1,205 words

The Second World War destroyed the old diplomatic
system of “great powers” and replaced it with a
polarized world of two superpowers. Germany,
Japan, and Italy were occupied and demilitarized.
France, Britain, and China had all suffered heavy
losses, and their economies were in shambles.
Although the Soviets had suffered over 15 million
casualties during WW II and witnessed the burning
and bombing of much of European Russia, the USSR
still possessed the most powerful infantry in the
world. The US undoubtedly emerged from the war as
the world’s most powerful nation. The US had the
largest navy and air force, and its economy had
grown massively during the war. Employment in the
US for women had risen from about 20% in 1939 to
60% in 1945 (May 50). Perhaps most importantly,
the US had a monopoly on the atom bomb.

Both these
countries, the US and the USSR, once allies had a
different agenda on their mind. The United States
was looking for stabilizing themselves and help
out those countries that were destroyed after the
war. On the other hand, the USSR was seeking to
spread communism around and wanted to become a
force to reckon with. The United States had feared
the global spread of communism and sought to fight
it, the Cold War began. With the beginning of the
Cold War in effect, a set of policies was
established to contain the spread of communism,
both internally and externally, in the United
States. These policies would prove to contain
foreign affairs more effectively than to help with
domestic ones.

In the home front all that could be
seen is fear of what was happening around them.
The idea that at any given moment nuclear and
atomic warfare could occur lead many people to
think differently about the way they should live.
Indeed, containment had its effect on shaping
roles of women, how men should react to situations
and brought about a sexual revolution to our
nation, but they would have no real positive
effect on the actual Cold War and their reactions
were fired up by hostility. Americas Policy of
Containment was introduced by George Kennan in
1947. This policy had a few good points but many
more bad points.Kennan’s depiction of communism as
a “malignant parasite” that had to be contained by
all possible measures became the basis of the
Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, and National
Security Act in 1947. In his Inaugural Address of
January 20, 1949, Truman made four points about
his “program for peace and freedom”: support the
UN, the European Recovery Program, the collective
defense of the North Atlantic, and a bold new
program for technical aid to poor nations. Because
of his programs, “the future of mankind will be
assured in a world of justice, harmony and
peace”(Nash, 716-719). Containment was not just a
policy.

It was a way of life. In 1945 the United
States saw the Soviet Union as its principal ally.
By 1947, it saw the Soviet Union as its principal
opponent. The United States misunderstood the
Soviet regime. Despite much pretense, national
security had not been a major concern of US
planners and elected officials. historical records
reveal this clearly. Few serious analysts took
issue with George Kennan’s position that it is not
Russian military power which is threatening us, it
is Russian political power.

With President
Eisenhower’s consistent view that the Russians
intended no military conquest of Western Europe
and that the major role of NATO was to convey a
feeling of confidence to exposed populations,
which was supposed to make them sturdier,
politically, in their opposition to Communist
inroads, the US dismissed possibilities for
peaceful resolution of the Cold War conflict,
which would have left the”political threat”
intact. It was always the “political” threat of
so-called Communism” that was the primary concern.
Of course, both the US and USSR would have
preferred that the other simply disappear. But
since this would obviously have involved mutual
annihilation, the Cold War was established.
According to the conventional Western view, the
Cold War was a conflict between two superpowers,
caused by Soviet aggression, in which the U.S.
tried to contain the Soviet Union and protect the
world from it. If this view is a doctrine of
theology, there’s no need to discuss it. If it is
intended to shed some light on history, we can
easily put it to the test, bearing in mind a very
simple point: if you want to understand the Cold
War, you should look at the events. If you do so,
a very different picture emerges.

On the Soviet
side, the events of the Cold War were repeated
interventions in Eastern Europe: tanks in East
Berlin and Budapest and Prague. These
interventions took place along the route that was
used to attack and virtually destroy Russia three
times in this century alone. On the US side,
intervention was worldwide, reflecting the status
attained by the US as the first truly global power
in history. No matter how outlandish the idea that
the Soviet Union and its tentacles were strangling
the West, the “Evil Empire” was in fact evil, was
an empire and was brutal. Each superpower
controlled its primary enemy its own population by
terrifying it with the crimes of the other. In
crucial respects, then, the Cold War was a kind of
tacit arrangement between the Soviet Union and the
United States under which the US conducted its
wars against the Third World and controlled its
allies in Europe, while the Soviet rulers kept an
iron grip on their own internal empire and their
satellites in Eastern Europe — each side using
the other to justify repression and violence in
its own domains.

The space race was the direct
result of the Policy of Containment . The
Americans simply had to beat the Russians to the
moon. The Russians had beaten the Americans into
space with Sputnik and put the first man, Yuri
Gregarian . The Americans increased funding for
research, education in science programs. Mr.
Kennedy announced that they would put a man on the
moon within ten years; they did it in eight years.
Technology grew by leaps and bounds because of the
Cold War. Because of the Arms Race and the Space
Race, the States amassed a huge debt.

They had to
pump lots of money into science and research. The
Cold War also almost brought about the destruction
of the world several times. During the Cuban
Missile Crisis, Kennedy was prepared to take the
world into World War III so he could get another
term in office. The Russians claimed that they
were attempting to install purely defensive
missiles . A defensive missile was, in fact, a
nuclear missile which would be used when the
Russian felt that Cuban independence was
threatened. It should be noted that the Americans
had missiles bases in Turkey, Britain, and Italy;
all aimed at the Soviet Union.

In 1950, McArthyism
swept the country. McCarthy was a senator who
frequently went to the senate drunk. One day, he
stood up and claimed that he had a list of one
hundred and fifty names of known communists
operating in the United States. Although ,when he
was asked ,he was never able to produce the list.
He had his own House formed, ….

Research essay sample on Victories In Foreign Policy But A Domestic Downfall