Example research essay topic: The Life And Times Of French Saint And Heroine Joan Of Arc – 1,215 words

Joan of Arc, or Jeanne DArc was a French saint and
national heroine known as the Maid of Orleans. She
was born the third of five children in
Domreemy-la-Pucelle, an ancient villenie of
Vaucouleurs, on the Meuse River, in Eastern France
on January 6, 1412. Joans parents were rich as far
as wealth of a Domremy citizen was measured. At
the time of Joans birth, the Hundred Years War was
in its last quarter and it was hard times for
patriotism in France. Her heart was filled with
laughter and gaiety, dutiful obedience to her
parents and the church, but her heart also held
pain of misfortune and war. Joan began to have
visions at a young age, most notably those of
Saint Michael, Saint Catherine, and Saint
Margaret.

When Joan was sixteen, the state of
France had gone from bad to worse. Joans familiar
saints, the Brothers of Paradise as she called
them, began to visit her frequently until the day
the Voice of God told her You Must Go, You Must
Go. Those were the words that would forever change
her life. It was at this time Joan had found it
was time to fulfill her destiny. The voice of God
and her saints advised her to give aid to a
dauphin, later known as King Charles the VII, who
was kept from the throne by the English during the
Hundred Years War. Joan began her destiny by
aiding Robert de Baudricourt, who was the captain
of the dauphins forces in Vaucouleurs.

Joan met
the dauphin at the Castle of Chinon and subjugated
his cynicism about her divine mission. In the
first weeks of May 1429, she led a series of
successful assaults against the English bastions
and so defeated and demoralized them that they
raised the siege and departed on May 8. The news
of the liberation of Orleans spread quickly across
France and injected a new spirit of hope and
resolution into the oppressed population. This
lead the way for Charles to be crowned king. The
dauphin was crowned at Rheims on July 17 with Joan
at his side during his coronation. This was the
highlight of Joans life.

In 1430 she was captured
by the Burgundians while defending Compiegne near
Paris and was sold to the English. The English, in
turn, handed her over to the ecclesiastical court
at Rouen led by Pierre Cauchon, a pro-English
Bishop of Beauvais, to be tried for witchcraft and
heresy. During her capture and incarceration,
Charles the VII made no attempt to rescue or
regain Joans freedom. What was referred to as her
most serious crime during the trial, was Joans
claim that she received direct inspiration from
God. In the eyes of the church, this claim meant
that Joan refused to accept the church hierarchy,
therefore constituting heresy. On May 28, Joan was
tried as a relapsed heretic before the secular
court.

On May 30, 1431, in the Old Market Place at
Rouen, Joan of Arc was burned at the stake. On
July 7, 1456, twenty-five years after Joan of Arcs
execution, Charles the VII recognized Joans
service to France, insisting upon a posthumous
trial that annulled her verdict of guilt. In 1909,
the Catholic Church in France declared a decree of
beatification for Joan of Arc which recognized the
deeds she performed at the cost of her life.
Eleven years later, on May 16, 1920, Joan of Arc
officially was recognized as a saint when Pope
Benedict XV canonized her.
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“rebeccawomack20″;”Feudalism”;”FEUDALISM The
meaning of feudalism is the social and political
system of Europe in the Middle ages based on
personal loyalty to your lord. This practiced was
used by many in the Middle Ages. For safety and
for defense, people in the Middle Ages formed
small communities around a central lord or master.
Most people lived on a manor, which consisted of
the castle, the church, the village, and the
surrounding farmland. In this feudal system, the
king awarded land grants or fiefs to his most
important nobles, his barons, and his bishops, in
return for their contribution of soldiers for the
kings armies.

The feudal method of holding land
was by fief and the recipient was the vassal. A
vassal was an individual who served a lord in a
military capacity. The fief was formally acquired
following the ceremony of homage. The practice of
vassalage was executed when warriors swore an oath
of loyalty to their leader. They faught for their
leader, and he in turn took care of their needs
Nobles divided their land among the lesser
nobility, who became so powerful that the kings
had difficulty controlling them. In an ideal
feudal society, the ownership of all land was
vested in the king.

Beneath him were the nobles.
For nearly five hundred years warfare in Europe
consisted of heavily armed calvary, otherwise
known as knights. These knights came to have the
greatest social prestige of all. When the
government began to break down, many powerful
nobles took control of large areas of land. They
of course needed men to fight for them, so they
proceeded to give grants of land to vassals who in
return would fight for their lord. This land gave
support for the vassal and his family. Land was
the most important gift that could be given to a
vassal.

Both the vassal and his lord benefited
from each other. Vassals were also responsible for
aids, which were financial payments to their lord.
The lord likewise had responsibilities toward his
vassal. His main priority was to protect him, of
course, but also for the maintennance of him. A
manor was an agricultural estate run by a lord and
worked by his peasants. Manorlism came about from
the unsettles circumstances in the Early Middle
Ages, when small farmers often needed protection
or food in a time of bad harvests. At the lowest
echelon of society were the peasants.

In exchange
for living and working on his land, known as the
demesne, the lord offered his peasants protection.
This caused free peasants to give up their freedom
just to be protected and have use of the lords
land. Many free peasants then became serfs or
villeins. These were peasants that were bound to
the land and had to give labor services, pay rent,
and be subject to the lords jurisdiction. These
labor services included working the lords demesne,
which was the land retained by the lord. Another
part of the labor services was building barns and
digging ditches. These serfs generally worked
about three days a week for their lord.

The way
the serfs paid rent was to give their lords a
share of each product. They also paid their lord
for use of his pasturelands and woodlands. Because
the serfs were not free, their lord had many legal
rights over them. Serfs could not lead their lords
land without permission. Serfs were allowed to get
married, but they could not marry anyone outside
their manor without the lords approval. Lords
sometimes tried peasants in their own courts.

This
court system was the only law that the peasants
knew. These peasants also had to pay the lord for
certain services, such as bringing grain to them
and grind it into flour. The lord controlled the
lives and properties of his serfs on his manor due
to the rights he possessed..

Research essay sample on The Life And Times Of French Saint And Heroine Joan Of Arc