Example research essay topic: Political Economy Analysis Of Marx’s Communist Manifesto – 762 words

The Communist Manifesto to a great extent aims to
explain the goals of Communism and the theory that
underpins the movement. The work argues that class
struggles, or the exploitation of one class by
another, are the motivating force behind all
historical developments. The work concludes with
the assumption the freedom of the proletariats
will only be achieved when property and other
goods cease to be privately owned. The Communist
Manifesto opens with a statement of its purpose,
to publicise the views, aims and tendencies of the
Communists. It is meant to be a broad description
of what Communism is, both as a theory and as a
political movement. The Manifesto has four
sections.

In the first section, it discusses the
Communists’ theory of history and the relationship
between proletarians and bourgeoisie. The second
section explains the relationship between the
Communists and the proletarians. The third section
addresses the flaws in other, previous socialist
literature. The final section discusses the
relationship between the Communists and other
parties. In section One, “Bourgeois and
Proletarians,” Marx highlights his vision of
history, focusing on the development and eventual
destruction of the bourgeoisie, the dominant class
of his day. Modern industrial society is
characterised by the class conflict between the
bourgeoisie and the proletariat.

Marx writes, “The
history of all hitherto existing society is the
history of class struggles.” Throughout history we
see the oppressor and oppressed in constant
opposition to each other. This fight is sometimes
hidden and sometimes open. However, each time the
fight ends in either a revolutionary
reconstruction of society or in the classes’
common ruin. In this instance he highlights that
the nature of the productive forces of capitalism
are not compatible and therefore as exploitation
occurs a proletariat revolution will result which
will aim to eradicate the social classes. He
emphasises that this revolution is inevitable as
capitalism is inherently unstable. The most
important concept being discussed is the concept
that each society has a characteristic economic
structure.

This structure breeds different
classes, which are in conflict as they oppress or
are oppressed by each other. However, this
situation is not permanent. As history continues,
eventually the means of production cease to be
compatible with the class structure. Instead, the
structure begins to impede the development of
productive forces. At this point, the existing
structure must be destroyed. This explains the
emergence of the bourgeoisie out of feudalism.
Marx also argues that it will explain the eventual
destruction of the bourgeoisie.

Marx believes that
all of history should be understood in this way-as
the process in which classes realign themselves in
compliance with changing means of production. Marx
argued that this revolution would differ from
others in history, as when control is gained, it
will be necessary to destroy all ownership of
private property in order to eliminate classes.
While the approach is radical, the doctrine
emphasised that history had illustrated that this
was not attainable through peaceful mechanisms or
governmental reformation. In Chapter two,
“Proletariats and Communists,” Marx elaborates the
social changes communists hope to effect on behalf
of the proletariat. The primary objective of
communists and the revolutionary proletariat is
the abolition of private property, for it is this
that keeps them enslaved. In other words, the
existence of bourgeois property, or capital as
Marx calls it, relies on its radically unequal
distribution. The only way the proletariat can
free itself from bourgeois exploitation is to
abolish capitalism.

Chapter three “Socialist and
Communist Literature,” encompasses Marx’s
discussion of the relationship between his
movement and previous or contemporaneous socialist
movements. In this chapter he repudiates these
other movements for not fully understanding the
significance of the proletarian struggle. The
final chapter, “Position of the Communists in
Relation to the Various Opposition Parties,”
announces the communist intention to “everywhere
support every revolutionary movement against the
existing social and political order of things”.
This focuses on the fact that any effective
revolutionary movement has to address the issue of
property ownership and that the retention of a
situation in which private property is retained,
people will continue to be repressed. The work is
extremely focused in approach and the viewpoints
are radical. It serves to instil a sense of
comradeship amongst workers and aims to propel
workers towards a communist revolt in which class
division will cease to exist and in which equal
opportunities will dominate. As Marx thunders in
conclusion, “Let the ruling classes tremble at a
Communistic revolution.

The proletarians have
nothing to lose but their chains. They have a
world to win. Working men of all countries,
unite!”..

Research essay sample on Political Economy Analysis Of Marxs Communist Manifesto