Example research essay topic: International Disputes Leading Up To The Gulf War Conflict – 513 words

“Gulf War”; also called Gulf War (1990-91),
international conflict that was triggered by
Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait on Aug. 2, 1990. Iraq’s
leader, Saddam Hussein, ordered the invasion and
occupation of Kuwait with the apparent aim of
acquiring that nation’s large oil reserves. On
August 3 the United Nations Security Council
called for Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait, and on
August 6 the council imposed a worldwide ban on
trade with Iraq. Iraq’s invasion and the potential
threat it then posed to Saudi Arabia prompted the
United States and its western European NATO allies
to rush troops to Saudi Arabia to deter a possible
attack. Egypt and several other Arab nations
joined the anti-Iraq coalition and contributed
forces to the military buildup, known as Operation
Desert Shield.

Hussein meanwhile built up his
occupying army in Kuwait to about 300,000 troops.
On November 29 the UN Security Council authorized
the use of force against Iraq unless it withdrew
from Kuwait by Jan. 15, 1991. By January 1991 the
Allied coalition against Hussein had reached a
strength of 700,000 troops, including 540,000 U.S.
personnel and smaller numbers of British, French,
Egyptians, Saudis, Syrians, and several other
national contingents. Hussein steadfastly refused
to withdraw his forces from Kuwait, however, which
he maintained would remain a province of Iraq (the
latter had formally annexed Kuwait on Aug. 8,
1990). The Persian Gulf War began on Jan.

1991, with a massive U.S.-led air offensive
against Iraq that continued throughout the war.
Over the next few weeks, this sustained aerial
bombardment, which had been named Operation Desert
Storm, destroyed Iraq’s air defenses before
attacking its communications networks, government
buildings, weapons plants, oil refineries, and
bridges and roads. By mid-February the Allies had
shifted their air attacks to Iraq’s forward ground
forces in Kuwait and southern Iraq, destroying
their fortifications and tanks. Operation Desert
Sabre, a massive Allied ground offensive, was
launched northward from northeastern Saudi Arabia
into Kuwait and southern Iraq on February 24, and
within three days Arab and U.S. forces had retaken
Kuwait City in the face of crumbling Iraqi
resistance. Meanwhile, the main U.S. armoured
thrust drove into Iraq some 120 miles (200 km)
west of Kuwait and attacked Iraq’s armoured
reserves from the rear.

By February 27 these
forces had destroyed most of Iraq’s elite
Republican Guard units after the latter had tried
to make a stand south of Basra in southeastern
Iraq. By the time that U.S. President George Bush
declared a cease-fire for February 28, Iraqi
resistance had completely collapsed. In the
aftermath of its defeat, Iraq was swept by popular
uprisings against the government of Saddam
Hussein, who managed to suppress them with some
difficulty. Kuwait’s independence was restored,
but the UN-sanctioned trade embargo on Iraq
remained in force after war’s end while a UN
special commission oversaw the destruction of
Iraq’s medium-range missiles and its chemical- and
nuclear-weapons research facilities. There are no
official figures for the Iraqi military operation.
Estimates of the number of Iraqi troops in the
Kuwait theatre range from 180,000 to 630,000, and
estimates of Iraqi military deaths range from
8,000 to 100,000.

The Allies, by contrast, lost
about 300 troops in the conflict..

Research essay sample on International Disputes Leading Up To The Gulf War Conflict