Example research essay topic: Broad Analysis Of Igneous Rocks In Earth’s Geology – 375 words

Out of the three different types of rocks, igneous
rocks are by far the most abundant rock on the
earths surface. From the oceans to the mountains,
you will find igneous rocks everywhere and it is
easy to see why. Igneous rocks are a result of
solidified magma. Magma is found underneath the
earths surface all over. Mountains are usually
volcanoes; either extinct, dormant or active.
Volcanoes contain magma. Magma is cooling all the
time.

This would mean that the rocks that form
from lava spews, or pyroclastic debris would be
igneous. Since volcanoes are also found below sea
level, oceans would also have igneous rocks in
them. In the article Mantle Plumes and Moutains
written by J. Brendan Murphy, Gary L. Oppliger,
George G. Brimhall, Jr.

and Andrew Hines, they
talk about hot spots lying beneath the oceanic
crust. When these erupt, the magma forms rocks on
the ocean floor: these rocks are igneous. They
also talk about continental crust overriding hot
spots. This is why islands such as the chains in
Hawaii have so many volcanoes. And anywhere
volcanoes are- igneous rocks are. Subduction is
also a huge reason that igneous rocks are so
abundant.

The Sierra Nevada is apparently made up
of large granitic bodies, placed there through the
process of subduction. (Murphy, 1999) The article
goes on to say that the subduction leads to the
deformation of rocks and igneous activity, which
combine to form mountains. Possibly the biggest
reason for the abundance of igneous rocks would be
the theory of plate tectonics. This theory tells
of the spanning of oceans from the tearing apart
of continents. When the magma ascends from the
asthenosphere, the cooled magma generates the new
lithosphere. (Murphy, 1999) This creates oceans.
Oceans make up a very large portion of the earth.
Igneous activity is very common also because in
the rock cycle, extreme heat and pressure turns
metamorphic and sedimentary rocks into magma which
in turn cools and turns into igneous rocks.

This
is a common cycle and with the abundance of
mountains and oceans, igneous rocks are very
common. As long as the plates continue to move,
magma will form and make new rocks, and as long as
the rock cycle continues, there will be igneous
rocks..

Research essay sample on Broad Analysis Of Igneous Rocks In Earths Geology