Example research essay topic: Arthur Miller’s Use Of Symbolism In “a View From The Bridge” – 1,195 words

… n committing so many murders. Anxious for the
witches prophecies to come true MacBeth revealed a
great deal about his character. His impatient and
apprehensive mentality brought about many changes.
Others saw MacBeth as a trader and turned against
him because of his actions. The combination of
MacBeths selfishness and great ambition created a
powerful outcome. Wanting more than anything to
gain further control in the form of king, MacBeth
followed his intuition and gave into
“Rohanrajesh”;”An Avant Garde”;” John Cage and
Revolutionary Music An Avant-garde is someone who
is ahead of his time.

He is a person who is
willing to cross new boundaries and to try new
things. The meaning of an Avant-garde is a group
or an individual who is active in the invention
and application of new techniques in a given
field. Who else could this definition fit better
than John Cage himself? He himself believed that
he was someone who wanted to invent new music.
Cage considered himself a musical inventor (Page
83, 20/20). John Cages art or experiment as you
might see it, is definitely a great achievement is
the field of music. His Sonata No 5 for prepared
piano, which was written in 1948, was one of the
greatest music he ever wrote. Music, in most of
the dictionaries is defined as sound that has
rhythm and melody or harmony.

Rhythm. When we
listen to music we use this term quite often. In
almost all the songs we appreciate we would attach
the word Rhythm to it. Rhythm is defined as a
regular repetition of a beat. It is also defined
as the time element of music. When we hear John
Cages Sonata No 5, we can clearly hear a
repetition of sound.

So we hear a rhythm. Melody
on the other hand is defined as sound in a
pleasant order and arrangement or also a sequence
of single tones organized rhythmically. It is very
evident that Sonata No 5 is melodic since it is
organized rhythmically. Therefore it definitely
fits the technical definition of music. The
surprising part of the first performance of such a
relative new sound at the time was that when the
audience first heard the Sonata they heard sounds
of profound beauty and also noises rich in sound
(Page 87,20/20). Which again proves that not only
is the Sonata No 5 music, but it is good music
which people enjoyed.

To listen to music is one
thing, but to appreciate it is entirely another.
John Cages music was revolutionary. The music that
he wrote or preferably invented was not always
melodies or harmonies, in fact Cage pushed the
boundaries of traditional music by eliminating
harmony in a lot of his Sonatas. The Sonata
personifies his interest in the rhythm of the
piece then in harmony. This was one of the first
revolutionary concepts. Cage had quickly
discovered that harmony was inhospitable to
nonpitched sounds(Page 86, 20/20). Another
revolutionary concept initiated in the Sonata No 5
was the unusual timbres generated by the prepared

By adding nuts, bolts, screws and such
metallic instruments to the piano Cage had created
a new set of timbres. The timbres generated give
you a feeling of the flow of water while others
are metallic. In the Sonata we hear a wide range
of timbres that can be produced by the prepared
piano. They are a complex set of timbres some with
unpitched thumps and hums. Although most of the
sounds produced barely sound like a piano but
sometimes we can hear a note here and there, which
reveals to us the instrument. Then there was
another new innovative concept, of using everyday

The everyday noises like the clunk, bang
and pound which can be heard in Sonata No 5. The
metallic noises produced by the prepared piano
sound a lot like playing with metal instruments,
which can be found in the kitchen, but in a lot of
his other works he has used instruments, which are
used in a normal household to produce new kinds of
sounds. One of John Cages motives was to open our
ears to the sounds of our surroundings. The
greatest example was the 433, a silent piece,
which was written for a piano. He wrote music but
he left the style of performance on the performer.
So that he would hear it being played in different
styles. Cage in Sonata No 5 has also incorporated
some of the conventional elements of music.

example of this would be ornamentation, although
ornamentation involves making a note fancy. In
this piece the ornamentation is of the ostinato,
which is present for most part of the music. In
describing the contour of the piece, it can be
said that the contour is smooth but it doesnt
always remain smooth it gets spiky and
unpredictable which makes it seem disjoint and
broken up. Although some of these elements of
music are relatively of a new concept there are
conventional models present in the Sonata No 5 and
by no means can it be said that it was a
predictable or typical piece. John Cage has
definitely revolutionized the way music is made
and the way people listen to music today, but the
fact is that if we did a review on John Cages
popularity when he was inventing all this it would
not be as high as that of, say Ricky Martin when
he had his first album. A huge audience did not
appreciate his music when he invented it, so
therefore it was not very influential, but slowly
the critics recognized it as a new kind of music.
Usually it is the next or the newer generation who
learns to love and appreciate such kind of art,
this new style of music, but in the case of John
Cage, his generation itself and also the later
appreciated his music.

It is because of John Cage
and his new style of music that helped the newer
generation to break free and claim their right to
revolutionary music and new forms of music. Of
course there have been others, but none to compare
to John Cages innovations. Sonata No 5 is one such
invention that had changed the way music could be
performed. John Cage did not write or invent music
just for some specific audience. He believed that
people had to listen to their environment. He
wanted music to be personal to each person.

wrote music for whoever wanted to here it. He is
an Avant-garde and his motive was to bring new
music and different kinds of sounds to our ears.
John cage said “Experiment must necessarily be
carried on by hitting anything — tin pans, rice
bowls, iron pipes — anything we can lay our hands
on . . . We must explore the materials of music.”
He is out there to explore to invent and to make
us listen. It is truly a matter of opinion for a
person to consider some form of sound as music,
but overall most of the critics agree, John cage
was a revolutionary and he revolutionized the
field of music.

As William Duckworth puts it a
person so influential that he changed forever the
way we write, hear, and understand music (Page 81,

Research essay sample on Arthur Millers Use Of Symbolism In a View From The Bridge